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Monitoring Fugitive emissions

The implementation of CCUS technologies requires implementation of new infrastructure for handling, transporting, and storing CO2, which poses a new risk for unwanted CO2 emissions. An efficient CO2 monitoring system is key to limiting the impacts on health and environment of potential fugitive emissions or leakage from this infrastructure, and therefore, an efficient monitoring system will be a key element in the operations.

The project will provide an efficient monitoring system, that will detect and quantify fugitive CO2 emissions from surface infrastructure as well as subsurface geological storage sites. This will be achieved by combining drone monitoring, gas monitor/LIDAR technology, and satellite data:

  • Stationary monitoring systems (fence post-based monitoring) provide precise, continuous measurements in the local areas of up to a few hundred meters.
  • Drone based monitoring systems can be deployed over larger areas (kilometres) at regular intervals but will not provide continuous monitoring.
  • Satellite systems can provide a continuous monitoring of CO2 concentrations over very large areas and act as a sentinel for fugitive CO2 emissions.
  • Inverse modelling of the measured atmospheric concentrations may allow localization and quantification of fugitive CO2 emissions.

Combining these systems will provide a very strong base for detecting possible leaks via satellite imaging and subsequently pinpointing these using drones. For the fixed limited size installation sites with high risk, gas monitor technologies would provide a very effective continuous monitoring system.

  1. Develop tools for inversion of column-averaged CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere into CO2 emissions based on atmosphere circulation models (based on satellite data products, in situ and drone observations).
  2. Mount a sensitive CO2 sensing payload on a drone and performing flight mission such a virtual wall, and thereby map the emission of CO2 from a facility.
  3. Establish a stationary system for continuous monitoring fugitive CO2 emission.
  4. Test of the developed monitoring solutions under different scenarios.